There are two approaches: one is through multiple cropping, and the other is through modern farming techniques. These two methods are dealt with in greater detail in the following response.
What is Multiple cropping?
Planning two or more types of crops in the same field is known as multi-cropping. It is also known as polyculture. These crop species typically have overlapping growth cycles.
However, there is another type of multi-cropping known as intercropping. It entails planting multiple crops in the same field during similar growing seasons.
Multi-cropping is most common in small fields where the goal is to feed the farm’s family or community while trading off certain crops outside. This kind of system usually relies on locally improved cultivars.
Multiple Cropping Methods
Multiple cropping can fall one of the following ways:
- Monoculture is planting similar crops in the same field over a year, such as rice beans, followed by beans, and kale after Kale.
- Duoculture is planting two competing crops in the same field at different times of the year.
- Polyculture is planting more than two different types of crops in the same field in the same year.
Advantages of Multiple Cropping
It benefits the environment, the farmers, and the country where it occurs. Here is a list of some of the additional benefits you can expect when you embrace multiple cropping:
- It boosts harvests.
- It increases exports.
- It increases foreign exchange.
- It aids in the control of weeds.
- It helps to maintain and improve soil fertility.
- Reduces pests and diseases when compared to monocropping
- Multi-product manufacturing is possible simultaneously.
- Ensures that families around the globe have a balanced diet.
- It serves as a more effective source of soul use.
- It increases the yield per unit of land.
Disadvantages of Multi-Cropping
Even though it has several advantages, the following are some of the disadvantages to be aware of:
- Pests and even diseases can easily cause it.
- It is difficult to make use of the current technological innovations.
- Pests and diseases can easily spread from one crop to another.
- Weed control is never easy.
Modern farming methods
Selective breeding, high capital input, labor with pesticides, chemical fertilizers, and insecticides, and the significant use of agricultural equipment such as harvesters, winnowing machines, and threshers are all part of modern farming methods. Modern agricultural techniques are increasing production in almost every industry. One of the major disadvantages of modern farming methods is that the excessive use of chemicals with the assistance of machinery reduces soil fertility.
Modern Farming Techniques
In the second half of the twentieth century, what became known as modern agriculture was extremely successful in supplying food to the world’s growing population. Primary crop yields, such as rice and wheat, increased significantly, food prices fell, crop yields generally kept up with population growth, and the proportion of people frequently living without food remained modest.
The development of new crops, the use of pesticides and fertilizers, and the construction of extensive irrigation systems are just a few of the technological advances and scientific discoveries that have contributed to this increase in food production.
Modern Farming Methods Have Drawbacks
Modern farming methods have undoubtedly given Indian agriculture a competitive advantage. However, there are several disadvantages to using this agriculture technique.
The following are some of the disadvantages of modern farming methods:
- Chemical fertilizers are frequently required in modern agriculture, resulting in annual degradation of soil quality.
- Precipitation dissolves approximately 50% of the nitrates in crop-growing chemical fertilizers.
- Nitrate dissolved in water enters streams via runoff from land.